Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Liquefied Natural Gas
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. The liquefaction process involves purifying the natural gas as much as possible, specifically to remove condensates and gases such as CO2 and H2S that may freeze or otherwise cause problems at the extremely low temperatures that LNG is kept at. The natural gas is condensed into a liquid at a plant referred to as an LNG train. At close to atmospheric pressure it is cooled to approximately −162 °C (−260 °F). Pressure is usually only slightly above atmospheric pressure (25 kPa).
LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent of that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances. Specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers are used to ship LNG to distant markets. LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. There are also some processes that will use LNG directly such as fuel for transportation.
Motor fuel means any fuel intended for use in internal combustion engines. In same cases these fuels may also have other uses such as Hydrogen for a fuel cell. If it is a fuel burned for internal combustion for locomotion or stationary power, we will discuss it here. The obvious fuels are gasoline or petrol, diesel and propane but we will also discus emerging fuels such as bio-diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), Hydrogen and others. Look for the links at the top of the page to see what is currently covered. Stay tuned for even more discussions.
While we are at it, and in keeping with the philosophy of this site, we will discuss the best methods for measuring these fuels, the drawbacks and issues involved and how to address them. We will also look at related emerging liquids such as DEF which is not a fuel at all but may be considered as a mandatory additive for some newer engines.